Encyclopedia of Animal Science
Encyclopedia of Animal Science.
Đặt in tại HoaXanh. Sách Bìa Màu Đóng Gáy Keo Nhiệt.
- Mã sản phẩm: ENC084748
- Tình trạng: 2
During the daily routines of animals, the animal responds to numerous challenges with a variety of responses, including structural and behavioral changes in the brain and body, which enable both behavioral and physiological stability to be maintained. In some incidences, adaptive physiological changes are not sufficient to achieve the animal’s requirements, and in these situations, defense mechanisms are initiated, which are collectively referred to as stress responses. “Stress” is a term that is generally associated with negative consequences, but stress is not always bad. Often, organisms seek stress and relish the euphoric feeling and reward associated with stressful experiences (e.g., skiing, copulation). In fact, many components of an animal’s environment are complex and unique, and many of these environmental stimuli are needed for life to continue because they serve as supportive stimuli to the animal.
The term “stress” is full of ambiguities; thus, no clear universal definition has emerged. For this discussion, stress is defined as a perceived threat to homeostasis, which elicits behavioral and physiological responses. The stress response consists of a complex array of behavioral and physiological adaptive changes that are initiated as a means of restoring homeostasis. Exposure to adverse stimuli results in a well-orchestrated series of responses that can typically cause alterations in autonomic, neuroendocrine, or immune function along with complex changes in behavior. These homeostatic mechanisms enable the organism to maintain behavioral and physiological stability despite fluctuating environmental conditions.